Hey guys~ I’m challenging myself to work on Tereseket more in-depth, by translating one sentence from this wonderful list a day, until I’ve completed all 218! They get more complicated as the list goes on (sort of). This is an excellent way to test your syntax etc. and I suggest it to any conlanger having issues, or any veteran wanting to re-explore the basics of their lang.
To start off, I’ll actually be doing the first 4 because of their similarity and because I have these structures worked out already.
I’ll start with the first 10.
1. The sun shines
1a. Zhikalabelva tonKazhan
1b. Zhika-labi-la-va ton-Kazhan
1c. Light-give-it-hab G10-Sun
Lit. “The Sun gives light”, incorporating the object “light” into the verb “give”. Also grammatical, but slightly formal-sounding, would be Labelva tonKahanal wazhika putting tonKazhan “the [main] Sun” into the ergative case and wazhika “light” in the absolutive. Ton- is the gender 10 prefix (gender 10 is used for celestial bodies and deities). -la is contracted to -l after vowel-final verbs
2. The sun is shinging
2a. Zhikalabelçi tonKazhan
2b. Zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan
2c. Light-give-it-nonpunctual G10-Sun
Using the nonpunctual aspect instead of the habitual aspect changes the meaning from something that happens regularly to something happening at the present time.
3. The sun shone
3a. Fazhikalabelçi tonKazhan
3b. Fa-zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan
3c. Past-light-give-it-nonpunctual G10-Sun
-çi can be dropped with a slightly different connotation. Using -çi emphasizes the period of time in which the Sun was shining, using the punctual aspect (no suffix) portrays the shining as an event. It would tend to be used to refer to a long-ago day or to emphasize a very brief moment of the Sun shining, for example, if you were describing an overcast day, and you mentioned that there was a brief break in the clouds.
4. The sun will shine
4a. Naizhikalabelçi tonKazhan
4b. Nai-zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan
4c. Future-light-give-it-nonpunctual G10-Sun
Same comments as with sentence 3 apply in regards to -çi
5. The sun has been shining
5a. Zhikalabelçi tonKazhan
5b. Zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan
5c. Light-give-it-nonpunctual G10-Sun
No difference from sentence 2, only context would differentiate.
6. The sun is shining again
6a. Pūzhikalabelçi tonKazhan
6b. Pū-zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan
6c. again-light-give-it-nonpunctual G10-Sun
7. The sun will shine tomorrow
7a. Naizhikalabelçi laspel tonKazhan
7b. Nai-zhika-labi-la-çi laspel ton-Kazhan
7c. Future-light-give-it-nonpunctual tomorrow G10-Sun
8. The sun shines brightly
8a. Zhikalabelçi wabitakkan tonKazhan
8b. Zhika-labi-la-çi wa-bitakka-n ton-Kazhan
8c. light-give-it-NP G6-brightness-commitative G10-Sun
Lit. “The Sun shines [gives light] with brightness” nouns in the commitative or instrumental are the most common way of forming adverbs.
9. The bright sun shines
9a. Zhikalabelçi tonKazhan tombitaka
9b. Zhika-labi-la-çi ton-Kazhan ton-bitaka
9c. light-give-it-NP G10-Sun G10-bright
10. The sun is rising now
10a. Naisaklaç kavi tonKazhan
10b. Naisā-la-çi kavi ton-Kazhan
10c. Rise-it-NP now G10-Sun
The -ā becomes -ak before vowel-initial or l-initial suffixes and -çi is contracted to -ç after vowels